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Parashat Miketz - Quick Summary

Weekly Torah Reading

Parashat Miketz ("at the end of")

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Brit Chadashah


Genesis 41:1-44:17
Num. 7:30-41 (m)

1 Kings 3:15-4:1
Zech 2:14-4:7 (holiday)

Rom. 10:1-13

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Last week's Torah (Vayeshev) related how Joseph, the favored son of Israel, was cruelly sold into slavery by his jealous brothers for 20 pieces of silver.  However, God was with him, and soon he was promoted to be the supervisor of his master's household! When Joseph later refused the seduction of his master's wife, however, he was unjustly thrown into prison, though Potiphar soon promoted him to help manage the jail. After successfully interpreting the dream of Pharaoh's imprisoned wine steward, Joseph hoped to be released, but the steward forgot to make appeal for him before Pharaoh.

Tzofnat Pane'ach

As the Parashah opens, Joseph had been confined in prison for 12 years, but the time had arrived for him to fulfill the dreams given to him as a young man. The parashah begins:

Genesis 41:1 (BHS)

After the end of two whole years, Pharaoh dreamed that
he was standing by the Nile (Genesis 41:1)

Two years after the wine steward was freed from prison, Pharaoh had two unusual dreams (in one, seven lean cows devoured seven well-fed cows, yet remained lean; in the other, seven thin ears of grain swallowed seven full ears, yet remained thin).  Pharaoh was disturbed and called for his magicians and wise men to explain their significance, but none of them could do so.  Then the wine steward remembered how Joseph had correctly interpreted his dream two years ago and promptly told Pharaoh, who hastily summoned Joseph to appear before him.

When Joseph was told Pharaoh's two dreams, he explained that Egypt would experience seven prosperous years, followed by seven years of famine (the repetition of the dreams meant that the matter was certain and the seven years were imminent). Joseph further recommended that a wise and discerning person be appointed to administer the land and store food for the coming years of trouble.

Pharaoh was greatly impressed with Joseph's abilities and immediately appointed him as viceroy to oversee the entire project. He conferred upon him the royal signet ring, adorned him in fine garments, and placed him on the viceroy's chariot. He also gave Joseph an Egyptian name (Tsofnat Paneach - "Decipherer of Secrets") and the daughter of an Egyptian priest named Asenath as his wife (who later bore him two sons, Manasseh ("Forgetting") and Ephraim ("Fruitfulness")). Overnight Joseph was taken from the dungeon and exalted to the right hand of Pharaoh himself!  He was 30 years old at the time of his rise to power.

During the next seven years, Joseph amassed an abundance of food in storehouses across Egypt. However, just as he foretold, the seven years of famine began. Joseph then opened the storehouses and sold food supplies to the Egyptians. The neighboring regions also suffered from the worldwide famine, and their inhabitants came to Egypt to purchase food.

Due to the famine, Jacob sent all of his sons (except Benjamin, the sole survivor of his beloved wife Rachel) down to Egypt to buy food. Since Joseph was the governor of the land in charge of the food distribution, Jacob's sons came and bowed themselves before him "with their faces to the ground."  Joseph immediately recognized them (but not vice versa), and accused them of being "spies." The brothers denied the charge, explaining their family background, and insisted that they were in Egypt merely to buy food. Joseph then ordered them to bring back their brother Benjamin in order to "prove" their story, and after imprisoning them for three days, released 9 of the 10 brothers (holding Simeon "hostage") until they would later return with Benjamin. The brothers then remembered their treatment of Joseph and attributed their current troubles to their abuse of him. Unbeknownst to them (since they were unaware that he understood their native tongue of Hebrew), Joseph understood their display of teshuvah, walked away and quietly wept.

Before the brothers departed back to Canaan, Joseph secretly instructed his servants to return their money inside their sacks of grain. On the way back home, the brothers discovered the money and feared that they would be accused of stealing the grain. When they arrived home, they told the entire ordeal to Jacob, who (despite Simeon's hostage status) flatly refused to let Benjamin make the return trip to Egypt with them.

When their supply of grain ran out, Reuben first appealed to Jacob to bear responsibility for Benjamin, but was rebuffed (doubtlessly because of his previous incestuous union with Bilhah, Rachel's handmaiden and the mother of Dan and Naphtali). When the conditions became insufferable, however, Judah approached his father and swore to take personal and eternal responsibility for the welfare of Benjamin. Upon hearing Judah's promise, Jacob finally relented and allowed him to go with the other brothers back to Egypt.

When they arrived in Egypt, the brothers were escorted to Joseph's house, where they presented a gift from their father and again bowed down before him. Joseph then hosted a feast and had the brothers sit in the order of their birth - much to their amazement. He also served Benjamin 5 times the food of the other brothers! 

The morning after the feast, as the brothers were getting ready to return to Canaan, Joseph devised a final test for his brothers by ordering his servants to once again fill their sacks with their money - and also to place Joseph's silver "divination" goblet in Benjamin's sack.  After the brothers left for Canaan, they were soon overtaken and confronted by Joseph's steward, who (following Joseph's script) accused them of stealing the goblet. They (again) protested their innocence and agreed to be searched, but the (planted) goblet was found in Benjamin's sack. The brothers then rent their clothes in grief and returned to make appeal to Joseph, where they once again fell to the ground before him and confessed their guilt before God (thus indicating true teshuvah). The parashah ends as Judah offered himself and his brothers to be slaves in place of Benjamin, but Joseph refused and insisted that only Benjamin would be made a slave for the "crime."

Haftarah Reading Snapshot:

Note: This Haftarah is almost never read, since Miketz nearly always coincides with the festival of Chanukah (with a different portion read as Haftarah). It is included here in order to follow the traditional Torah-Haftarah reading schedule.

The background of the Haftarah is the elevation of Solomon as the King of Israel (and thereby, as a type of Mashiach, as ben Elohim). It begins with a dream in which the LORD asked Solomon what gift he would want most, and Solomon replying, "Give your servant an understanding mind to govern your people, that I may discern between good and evil, for who is able to govern this your great people?" Since he had chosen wisely, the LORD gave Solomon wisdom beyond that of every person who had preceded or would follow him, and great riches and honor as well.

The Haftarah continues by demonstrating the wisdom of the king.  "Then came two female 'zonot' (prostitutes) before the King..."  Both women had recently born children, but one had died during the night, and it was alleged by the mother whose child had died that the babies were switched.  Now each woman claimed that the living baby was hers, and they were appealing to the King to settle the matter. Solomon shocked them by his verdict (i.e., to cut the living child in two and give half to each mother), in order to discern from their reactions who would have the greatest pity on the baby. The mother who displayed greater pity for the child was identified as the true mother, and was awarded the child.

Brit Chadashah Snapshot:

The reading from the book of Romans concerns the Apostle Paul's desire to see all Israel come to saving faith in Yeshua as the Promised Mashiach and Savior of the world.

In this regard, it is interesting to note some of the parallels between Yeshua and Joseph as a "type" or foreshadowing of the coming Mashiach of Israel. Here is a partial list of sixty (60) correspondences revealed in the Scriptures:



Joseph's mother Rachel was barren, and her pregnancy was the result of the direct intervention of God (Gen. 30:2).


Yeshua's mother Mary (Miriam) was a virgin and her pregnancy was the result of the direct intervention of God (Matt. 1:18).


The birth of Rachel's son would remove reproach from Israel (Gen. 30:23).


The birth of Yeshua was for the glory of the people of Israel (Luke 2:32). Yeshua would also be the Light to the nations...


The name Joseph (i.e., yosef: יוֹסֵף) means "may he add," a wordplay given by Rachel to express her hope for more children (Gen. 30:24).


Jesus (Yeshua) means "YHVH saves" and denotes the deliverance of God's children. Through Yeshua God would add children to Israel...


Joseph was the firstborn son of Rachel, who is considered "the" matriarch of Israel (Gen. 30:23-24).


Yeshua was the firstborn son of Mary (Miriam), who is considered the matriarch of the church (Luke 2:7; John 19:26).


The birth of Joseph marked the end of Israel's exile from the land; after his birth his father Jacob left Laban for the Promised Land (Gen. 30:25).


The birth of Yeshua marked the end of Israel's spiritual exile (Luke 2:29-32).


In Jewish tradition, Joseph is regarded as the nemesis of Esau (who was considered the personification of Gentile power and oppression of Israel).


Yeshua overcame the powers of darkness by through the victory of the cross. He is the "Serpent Slayer," the ultimate nemesis of Satan and his servants...


Joseph was a precocious young man who was filled with dreams given to him from heaven (Gen. 37:5-ff).


Yeshua was at the Temple discussing Torah with the sages when he was just 12 years old (Luke 2:42-51). He was a precocious child who was filled with dreams of heaven.


Joseph was "beloved of his father" (Gen. 37:3). He was ben yachid (בֵּן יָחִיד) as Isaac was regarded by Abraham (see the Akedah).


"This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" (Matt. 3:17; 17:5). Yeshua is also described as ben yachid, "only begotten" of the Father (John 1:14).


Joseph was a shepherd (רוֹעֶה)
(Gen. 37:2).


Yeshua the Messiah is called the "Good Shepherd" (הָרעֶה הַטּוֹב) (John 10:11).


Joseph was raised in the Promised Land (Gen. 37:2).


Yeshua was raised in the Promised Land (Matt. 2:23; 21:11; John 1:45).


Joseph brought a bad report of his brothers to his father (Gen. 37:2).


Yeshua testified that the world hated Him because its works were evil (John 7:7).


Jacob loved Joseph more than his other sons (Gen. 37:3).


God loves Yeshua His Son in a unique way (John 3:35; 5:20; Matt. 17:5; Luke 9:35).


Joseph was "anointed" by his father with a tunic of many colors (i.e., ketonet passim: כְּתנֶת פַּסִּים). (Gen. 37:3)


Yeshua was anointed as Mashiach ben David (Heb 1:9; Psalm 45:7; see below).


Joseph prophetically foresaw himself as the deliverer of Israel and the savior of the world (Gen. 37:5-11).


Yeshua understood Himself to be the Savior of Israel and the world (John 6:35; 8:12).


Joseph's brothers hated him and could not speak kindly to him (Gen. 37:4).


Yeshua was hated without a cause and repeatedly "tested" by the religious authorities (John 1:11; 15:25).


Joseph was a dreamer and a prophet who was despised by his brothers (Gen. 37:5-10).


Yeshua preached the message of salvation through His vision of the kingdom - and was despised (John 5:18; 7:1; 8:6; Matt. 16:1, etc.).


Joseph's brothers refused his rule
(Gen. 37:8).


Yeshua likened His rejection by the religious leaders to mean, "We do not want this man to rule over us" (Luke 19:14).


Joseph's brothers envied him
(Gen. 37:11).


It was out of envy (קִנְאָה) that the chief priests handed him over to be killed (Mark 15:10).


Joseph was "sent forth by his father" (Gen. 37:12-14).


Yeshua sent forth by His Father
(John 5:30-36; 6:57; 8:18,42; Gal. 4:4; 1 John 4:9, etc.).


Joseph's brothers conspired to kill him (Gen. 37:18).


The chief priests and the elders of the people conferred together against Yeshua in order to bring about his death (Matt. 27:1).


Joseph's brothers disbelieved in him (Gen. 37:19-20).


Yeshua's brothers did not believe in Him
(John 1:11; 3:18, John 3:36, etc.).


Joseph's brothers stripped him of his tunic and mocked him (Gen. 37:19,23).


They stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him (Matt. 27:28).


Joseph's brothers cast him into a pit, a symbol of the tomb (Gen. 37:24).


Yeshua was cast into a pit (Zech. 9:11; Matt. 12:40; Matt. 27:59-60).


Joseph's brothers callously ate a meal while he was suffering in the pit (Gen. 37:25).


Israel ate the Pascal meal while Yeshua was in the pit (John 13:1).


Judah promoted the idea that Joseph's life should be ransomed (Gen. 37:26-27).


Yeshua was born of the tribe of Judah and became the Redeemer of the world.


Joseph's brothers sold him for shekels of silver (Gen. 37:28).


"They paid him (Judas) thirty pieces of silver" (Matt. 26:15).


Joseph was raised from the pit
(Gen. 37:28).


Yeshua was raised from the dead
(Matt. 28:6; Mark 16:16; Luke 24:6; John 20:1-17; etc.).


Joseph was sold as a slave before he was promoted to glory (Gen. 37:28).


Yeshua took upon Himself the form of a suffering servant before His exaltation
(John 13:12-17; Matt. 20:25-26; Mark 10:43; Phil. 2:6-9, etc.).


Joseph was taken into Egypt to avoid being killed (Gen. 37:28).


Yeshua was taken into Egypt to avoid the insane wrath of "Herod the Great" (Matt. 2:13-14).


Joseph's tunic was covered with blood (Gen. 37:31)


Yeshua's robe was covered with blood.
(Mark 15:17-20; Matt. 27:28-31). Yeshua redeemed us from judgment by shedding His blood for our sins (1 Cor. 6:19-20; Acts 5:31; 1 Pet. 3:18; Rom. 5:6-8, 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:13, etc.).


Joseph became a slave in Potiphar's house (Gen. 39:1)


Yeshua took upon Himself the form of a suffering servant before His exaltation
(John 13:12-17; Matt. 20:25-26; Mark 10:43; Phil. 2:6-9, etc.)


The LORD was with Joseph in his humiliation and prospered him (Gen. 39:2).


Yeshua grew in wisdom and favor (Luke 2:40); He always did those things that pleased the Father (John 8:29).


Joseph was made an overseer
(Gen. 39:4).


Yeshua is the Shepherd and Overseer (מַשְׁגִּיחַ) of our souls (1 Pet. 2:25; John 3:35; Matt 28:18).


Joseph was tempted but did not sin (Gen. 39:7-10).


Yeshua was tempted in every way yet was without sin (Heb. 2:18; 4:15; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 John 3:5).


Joseph was falsely accused and indeed the Torah does not attribute any sin to him (Gen. 39:11-20; 40:15).


Yeshua was falsely accused by the religious authorities (Luke 23:4;14-15; John 18:38; 19:4; Heb. 7:26; 1 Pet. 2:22; 1 Pet. 3:18).


Joseph's legal accuser (Potiphar) likely believed in his innocence, but perverted justice to "save face."


Yeshua was unjustly condemned by the Roman procurator Pilate, who believed in his innocence but sentenced him to death to "save face."


Joseph made no defense before the Gentile authorities (Gen. 39:19-20).


"He questioned him at some length, but he made no answer" (Luke 23:9; Matt. 27:14; Acts 8:32; Isa 53:7; etc.).


Joseph was imprisoned with two other criminals (Gen. 40:2-3).


"Two others also, who were criminals, were led away to be put to death with him."
(Luke 23:32; Matt. 27:38; Mark 15:27; John 19:18).


Joseph was a prophet who could interpret dreams (Gen. 40:5-41:32).


Yeshua was a prophet who could reveal what was hidden in the heart (John 4:19,29).


Joseph was filled with the Spirit of God (רוּחַ אֱלהִים) and great wisdom (Gen. 41:38-39).


God anointed Yeshua with the Holy Spirit and with power (Acts 10:38; Matt. 3:16-4:1; Luke 4:1; etc.). He was full of wisdom and truth.


Joseph was finally vindicated and exalted over the entire world (Gen. 41:40-42).


"The Son of Man is seated at the right hand of Power" (Matt. 26:64; Acts 7:56; 1 Pet. 3:22; Eph. 1:18-20, etc.).


Joseph was raised from the pit and given fine linen and gold (Gen. 41:42).


Yeshua was clothed with his preincarnate glory after the resurrection (Matt. 17:1; Rev. 1:13-17; Dan. 10:5-6).


Pharoah ordered the royal criers to walk in front of Joseph's chariot (merkavah) shouting, avrekh! (אַבְרֵךְ) - "bow the knee!" (from the root berekh, knee). (Gen. 41:43)


Every knee shall bow to Yeshua the Messiah (Isa. 45:23; Rom. 14:11; Phil. 2:9-11).


Joseph was given a foreign bride (אָסְנַת) (Gen. 41:45).


Yeshua's followers are called the "Bride of Messiah," and are taken from every tribe and tongue (John 6:37; Rev. 22:17, etc.).


Joseph was called Tzofnat Pane'ach (צָפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ), i.e., "Decipherer of Secrets" according to Targum Onkelos (Gen. 41:45).


Yeshua revealed the Father (John 1:18); He is the revealer "hidden things" (Matt. 13:10-13;35). In Him are hidden all the treasures of wisdom (Col. 2:3).


Joseph was 30 years old when he began his public ministry in Egypt (Gen. 41:46).


Yeshua was 30 years old when He began His public ministry in Israel (Luke 3:23).


Joseph became the bread giver to the world (Gen. 41:55).


Yeshua is Lechem Ha-Chayim, the "Bread of Life" (John 6:35,48-58).


Joseph tested his brothers as a disguised Egyptian, and they did not recognize him (Gen. 42:8).


Yeshua is a disguished Egyptian - a stumbling block and rock of Offence (Isa. 8:14; Rom. 9:33). A "partial hardening" has come upon Israel (Rom. 11:25-26).


Judah interceded on behalf of Israel's son Benjamin before Joseph (Gen. 43:9; 44:16-34).


1) Yeshua will one day intercede (as Mashiach ben David) on behalf of Israel (the Yom Kippur connection of the End of Days); 2) The Jewish people will finally repent and turn to Yeshua as their Savior.


After testing his brothers to see if they underwent teshuvah, Joseph finally revealed himself (Gen. 45:1-4).


During the Great Tribulation, Yeshua will open the eyes of Israel so they finally recognize Him (Luke 13:35; Matt. 24-25).


Joseph was revealed to his brothers as Israel's savior (Gen. 45:1-15).


Yeshua is Israel's true Savior (Acts 13:23; 2 Tim. 1:10; Isa. 43:11). Israel will receive Yeshua at His Second coming (Zech. 12:10; John 19:37; Rom. 11:26; Isa. 59:20, etc.).


Joseph became the savior of the entire world (Gen. 45:7).


God sent his only Son into the world so that we might have life through him (John 4:42; 1 John 4:14). Salvation ultimately means redemption from the curse of sin and death.


Joseph was "alive from the dead" for Israel (Gen. 45:26-28).


"Why do you look for the living among the dead? He is not here, but has risen."
(Matt. 28:6; Mark 16:16; Luke 24:6; John 20:1-17; etc.).


Judah led the way of Israel back to the promised land of Goshen (Gen. 46:28).


Yeshua as Mashiach ben David will lead Israel to the renewed land of promise.


Joseph brought Israel before Pharaoh and Jacob blessed the Pharaoh (Gen. 47:7).


Yeshua will one day bring Israel before the Father - and Israel will then bless the Name of the LORD in the truth (1 Cor. 15:28).


Through his faith, Joseph conquered the entire world (Gen. 47:23).


In the Millennial Kingdom, Yeshua will be the undisputed LORD of the world (Rev. 20:2-6; Zech. 8:3; 14:8; Isa. 2:3; Micah 4:2; etc.).


Joseph was crowned with glory and honor (Gen. 41:39-45).


Yeshua was crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of His death on behalf of His people (Heb. 2:9; Phil. 2:6-11, Matt. 28:18, etc.).


Jacob irrevocably adopted Joseph's two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, into the family (Gen. 48:3-6). Joshua, Moses' successor, was a descendant of Ephraim...


Yeshua foretold that there would be one shepherd over one flock (John 10:16). Ultimately there will be one olive tree that represents the redeemed people of God, composed of both Jews and Gentiles (Rom. 11:17-26).


Joseph's (Gentile) descendants were  incorporated into the commonwealth of ethnic Israel as two great tribes of Israel (Gen. 48:1-5).


Yeshua's followers are incorporated into the covenants and blessings of ethnic Israel (Eph. 2:12-14).


Joseph was given the blessing of the firstborn son (Gen. 49:22-26).


Yeshua is the "firstborn of creation" who has preeminence over all other prophets, priests, kings, angels (Heb. 1; Col. 1:16-18).

Just as Joseph was finally revealed to the Jewish people as a mashiach and savior (though they had initially betrayed him and rejected him), so will the Jewish people come to see that Yeshua is indeed the promised Jewish Mashiach and the Savior of the world. Then will come true the hope of Rav Sha'ul (the Apostle Paul) who wrote, "And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer who shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob" (Rom. 11:30). For more on this, see "Mashiach ben Yosef."

Dual Aspect of Mashiach

The Tanakh contains seemingly conflicted views of the Mashiach as Israel's Deliverer. On the one hand, Messiah is portrayed as coming in great triumph "in the clouds" (Daniel 7:13), but on the other he comes riding a donkey, lowly and humble (Zechariah 9:9). This "dual aspect" of Messiah led to the idea that there would be two Messiahs:
Messiah ben Joseph and Messiah ben David.

Messiah son of Joseph

Mashiach ben Yosef

Mashiach ben Yosef.
The Suffering Messiah (Joseph [Gen. 37-50] prefigures). The Messiah from the house of Joseph. One of two Messianic figures which are described in the oral traditions of Judaism. Mashiach ben Yosef is considered to be a forerunner and harbinger of the final deliverer, Mashiach ben David. Mashiach ben Yosef suffers for the sins of Israel (Isaiah 53). Christians see Yeshua as the fulfillment of Mashiach ben Yosef in the Tanakh and the oral tradition. Yeshua the Messiah in His first coming is the Suffering Servant.


    "Messiah son of Joseph was slain, as it is written, "They shall look unto me whom they have pierced; and they shall mourn for him as one mourneth for his only son" Zech. 12:10 (Suk. 52a)

    The Talmud explains: "The Messiah---what is his name? Those of the house of Rabbi Yuda the saint say, the sick one, as it is said, 'Surely he had borne our sicknesses." (Sanhedrin 98b)

    Referring to Zech. 12:10-12, "R. Dosa says: '(They will mourn) over the Messiah who will be slain.' " (B. Suk. 52a; also Y. Suk. 55b)

    "But he was wounded . . . meaning that since the Messiah bears our iniquities which produce the effect of His being bruised, it follows that whosoever will not admit that Messiah thus suffers for our iniquities, must endure and suffer for them himself" (Rabbi Elijah de Vidas)


Messiah son of David

Mashiach ben David

Mashiach ben David.
The ruling Messiah King (King David prefigures). The term Mashiach unqualified always refers to Mashiach ben David, a descendant of King David, of the tribe of Judah who will regather the exiles, set up the temple, and deliver Israel from all her enemies. Christians believe Yeshua the Messiah in His second coming will completely fulfill this description of Mashiach ben David.


    Today, we can see with our own eyes how the vision of the Prophet Ezekiel, describing the rebirth of the Jewish People and the ingathering of the exiles in Eretz Yisrael, is being fulfilled. It is true that we are now in mid-process. We are still at the stage of being crystallized as a nation....

    Yet, our gaze must likewise be trained upon the future and the end of days, the age of Mashiach ben David. At that time, the issue of limited nationalism will pass, and we will turn as well to mankind in the aggregate, serving as a light unto the nations. Each day, in fact, we pray, "Speedily cause the offspring of your servant David to flourish." (Rabbi Dov Begon)

Yeshua is both Mashiach ben Yosef and Mashiach ben David

As Christians, we believe that Yeshua is both Mashiach Ben Yosef (the suffering servant - at His first coming) and Mashiach Ben David (the reigning King - at His second coming)
[see Isaiah 52:13-15 - 53:12, Psalm 22]). He is also the Anointed Prophet, Priest, and King as foreshadowed by other m'shichim in the Tanakh.

David Brown (of AMF International) writes:

    It is very common for Jewish objectors to point that "Jesus has not fulfilled all the prophecies," and to scorn the suggestion that some prophecies are for a later time and are to be fulfilled at the "second coming." The fact is, however, that prophecies about Messiah are of two seemingly mutually-exclusive types, as though they were talking about two different Messiahs. Jewish scholarship refers to Messiah ben-David and Messiah ben-Yosef. One is the positive, victorious Messiah who ushers in a kingdom of peace, the other is a suffering servant (as in Isaiah 53). The  popular tendency is to think only of ben-David and ignore ben-Yosef, but the Messianic/Christian view accounts for both in one person. Interestingly, these two prophetic strains are named for David and Joseph, both of which suffered first and emerged victorious in the end. Joseph is introduced to us with dreams of grandeur, but he was lost to Israel – actually considered dead – before his dreams came true. Eventually however, he had a "second coming" when he came back into the lives of his brothers who once rejected him. Then they bowed down to him and he became the savior of his people by providing for them in a time of famine.  David also, though anointed as King in his youth as far as God was concerned, was rejected by the current King and lived as a fugitive for many years before he finally became the quintessential King of Israel. Both of these historic figures, which Jewish tradition has recognized as being prototypes of Messiah, arrive amid promises, are pushed down, and finally emerge in glory. Shouldn't the ultimate Messiah follow the same pattern? 


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